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Bitcoin () is a cryptocurrency, a type of electronic money. It is a decentralized digital currency with no central bank or single administrator that can be sent from user-to-user on the peer-to-peer bitcoin network with no need for intermediaries.7

Transactions are verified by network nodes via cryptography and recorded in a public distributed ledger known as a blockchain. Bitcoin was invented by an unknown person or group of individuals using the name Satoshi Nakamoto9 and published as open-source applications in 2009.10 Bitcoins are created as a reward for a procedure known as mining.

Research produced by the University of Cambridge estimates that in 2017, there were 2.9 to 5.8 million unique users using a cryptocurrency wallet, most of them using bitcoin.12.

Bitcoin has been criticized for its use in prohibited transactions, its high power consumption, price volatility, thefts from exchanges, and the possibility that bitcoin is an economic bubble.13 Bitcoin has also been used as an investment, even though several regulatory agencies have issued investor alerts about bitcoin.14

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The domain name"bitcoin.org" was registered on 18 August 2008.15 On 31 October 2008, a link to a paper authored by Satoshi Nakamoto titled Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System5 was posted to a cryptography mailing list.16 Nakamoto implemented the bitcoin software as open-source code and published it in January 2009.171810 Nakamoto's identity remains unknown.9.

In January 2009, the bitcoin network was created when Nakamoto mined the first block of this chain, known as the genesis block.1920 Embedded in the coinbase of the cube has been the following text:"The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks. "10 This note has been interpreted as either a timestamp and a comment on the instability brought on by fractional-reserve banking.21:18.

The receiver of the initial bitcoin transaction was cypherpunk Hal Finney, that made the very first reusable proof-of-work platform (RPOW) in 2004.22 Finney downloaded the bitcoin software on its release date, and on 12 January 2009 obtained ten bitcoins out of Nakamoto.2324 Other ancient cypherpunk fans were founders of bitcoin predecessors: Wei Dai, founder of b-money, and Nick Szabo, creator of bit gold.25 In 2010, the first known business transaction using bitcoin happened when programmer Laszlo Hanyecz purchased two Papa John's pizzas for 10,000 bitcoin.26.

Nakamoto is estimated to have mined one million bitcoins27 before disappearing in 2010, when he handed the network awake crucial and control of the code over to Gavin Andresen. Andresen later became lead developer at the Bitcoin Foundation.2829 Andresen then sought to decentralize control. This abandoned opportunity for controversy to develop over the future development path of bitcoin.3029.

After early"proof-of-concept" transactions, the first major users of bitcoin were black markets, such as Silk Road. During its 30 months of existence, beginning in February 2011, Silk Road exclusively accepted bitcoins as payment, transacting 9.9 million in bitcoins, worth about $214 million.31:222

In 2011, the price started at $0.30 per bitcoin, growing to $5.27 for year. The cost rose to $31.50 on 8 June. Within a month the cost fell to $11.00. The next month it fell to $7.80, and in another month to $4.77.32

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Litecoin, an early bitcoin read this post here spin-off or altcoin, appeared in October 2011.33 Many altcoins have been made since then.34

In 2012, bitcoin prices started at $5.27 growing to $13.30 for the year.32 By 9 January the price had risen to $7.38, but then dropped by 49% to $3.80 within the next 16 days. The price then rose to $16.41 on 17 August, but dropped by 57 percent to $7.10 within the next three days.35.

In March 2013 that the blockchain briefly split into two independent chains with different rules. The two blockchains operated simultaneously for half an hour, each with its own version of the transaction history. Normal operation was restored when the vast majority of the network downgraded to version 0.7 of their bitcoin applications.37 The Mt.

Gox experienced processing delays because of insufficient capacity44 resulting in the bitcoin price dropping from $266 to $76 before returning to $160 within six hours.45 The bitcoin price rose to $259 on 10 April, but then crashed by 83% to $45 over the next 3 times.35 On 15 May 2013, US government captured accounts connected with Mt.

881.48 This marked the first time a government agency had captured bitcoin.4950 The FBI captured about 26,000 bitcoins in October 2013 in the dark website Silk Road during the arrest of Ross William Ulbricht.515253 Bitcoin's price rose to $755 on 19 November and crashed by 50% to $378 the exact same moment.

In 2014, prices began at $770 and dropped to $314 for the calendar year.32 In February 2014 that the Mt. Gox exchange, the most significant bitcoin exchange in the moment, stated that 850,000 bitcoins had been stolen from its clients, amounting to almost $500 million. Bitcoin's cost fell by almost half, from $867 to $439 (a 49% drop).

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